During the 1870s, the shipbuilding trade in and around Auckland was rapidly expanding, with shipbuilding occurring in numerous little bays and harbours due to the abundant timber suitable for shipbuilding purposes. The Advance, a wooden schooner of 51 tons, was built in Tolaga Bay in 1874. She made her maiden trading voyage in mid-January 1875 from Port of Auckland to Gisborne carrying passengers, 20 tons of coal, lumber, flour and other general cargo.
The Advance was a regular trader between East Coast ports Auckland, Wellington, and Lyttelton, under the ownership of Mr. John Trimmer. The vessel was then purchased by Messrs Keans and Company, and was for some years commanded by Captain Kennedy.
While she operated in Australia, the Advance became a well known schooner, employed in the coastal coal trade and for a number of years trading between Sydney and the Northern and Southern collieries.
The second United States Navy ship to be so named, Advance – a schooner-rigged, sidewheel steamer built at Greenock, Scotland, by Caird & Co. was launched on 3 July 1862 as the Clyde packetLord Clyde – was jointly purchased by the state of North Carolina and the firm of Lord, Power & Co. to serve as a blockade runner during the Civil War. She was renamed A. D. Vance (in some sources written as "Advance") in honor of the Governor of North Carolina, Zebulon B. Vance. She completed more than 20 highly successful voyages and 40 close calls with Union ships standing blockade watches.
Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (DEPT) uses enzymes artificially introduced into the body to convert Prodrugs, which have no or poor biological activity, to the active form in the desired location within the body. Many chemotherapy drugs for cancer lack tumour specificity and the doses required to reach therapeutic levels in the tumour are often toxic to other tissues. DEPT strategies are an experimental method of reducing the systemic toxicity of a drug, by achieving high levels of the active drug only at the desired site. This article describes the variations of DEPT technology.
Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT)
ADEPT is a strategy to overcome the problems of lack of tumor selectivity. An antibody designed/developed against a tumor antigen is linked to an enzyme and injected to the blood, resulting in selective binding of the enzyme in the tumor. When the discrimination between tumor and normal tissue enzyme levels is sufficient, a prodrug is administrated into the blood circulation, which is converted to an active cytotoxic drug by the enzyme, only within the tumor. Selectivity is achieved by the tumor specificity of the antibody and by delaying prodrug administration until there is a large differential between tumor and normal tissue enzyme levels.